Friday, September 5, 2008

CSC As I See It 009


  • This is how Oracle Maestro looks when you start it for the first time. Select the Database |Create Database Profiles main menu item to create profiles for the existing databases.
  • After you have created the required database profiles (Create Database Profile Wizard) they appear in the explorer tree on the left. Now you can establish connection to the database. If connection succeeds, the database node expands displaying the tree of its objects.

  • New tables are created within Create Table Wizard. In order to run the wizard you should either

select the Object | Create Database Object... main menu item;
select the Table icon in the Create Database Object dialog


select the Tables list or any object from that list in the explorer tree;
select the Create New Table... item from the popup menu


open and the Tables tab there;
press the Insert key or select the Create New Table item from the popup menu (alternatively, you may use the corresponding link of the Navigation Bar).


  • You select from a palette of files, fields, and graphic tools to create a structure.
  • The first step in designing a database is choosing what information you want to store in a database.
  • The second step is to create fields in your file. This requires deciding what types of fields you want. For example, fields can store text, numbers, pictures, or other kinds of data.
  • The third step is to create layouts. Layouts are computer screens that present information to you. Usually a database provides graphic tools that can enhance the appearance of the layout. For example, you can add boxes, lines, and fill patterns by using the tool palette.

  • database are made in the Create Database Wizard.
  • To run the Create Database Wizard, select the Database | Create New Database... main menu item or click the Create New Database button on the main toolbar.
  • The first wizard step allows you to set a name of the new database.
  • Database Editor allows you to browse all the database objects and its main properties. There is possible to create, edit and drop database sub-items.

  • just click the "Create New Database" button from the main menu item
  • this will lead you to the Create Database Wizard
  • once you have accomplish filling up some informations in the Wizard window, you have now your database
  • in making tables, you must first connect to a database.
  • once you have connected, just right-click the database item in the explorer tree. Then, click "Create New Table".

Monday, August 11, 2008

CSC As I see it 008

DB2 has a long history and is considered by many to have been the first database product to use SQL (also first developed by IBM).

The name DB2 was first given to the Database Management System or DBMS in 1983 when IBM released DB2 on its MVS mainframe platform. Prior to this, a similar product was named SQL/DS on the VM mainframe. The earlier System 38 platform also contained a relational DBMS. System Relational, or System R, was a research prototype developed in the 1970s. DB2 has its roots back to the beginning of the seventies when Dr. E.F. Codd, working for IBM, described the theory of relational databases and in June of 1970 published the model for data manipulation. To apply the model Codd needed a relational database language which he named Alpha. At the time IBM didn't believe in the potential of Codd's ideas, leaving the implementation to a group of programmers not under Codd's supervision, who violated several fundamentals of Codd's relational model; the result was Structured English QUEry Language or SEQUEL. When IBM released its first relational database product, they wanted to have a commercial-quality sublanguage as well, so it overhauled SEQUEL and renamed the basically new language SQL to differentiate it from SEQUEL. SQL, contrary to popular belief, does not stand for Structured Query Language as "it breaks the cardinal rule of structured languages by allowing branches to remote locations."(Allen G. Taylor, 2004) This leads the reader to speculate as to what the "true" meaning of SQL might be.

Historically, it is interesting to note that when Informix acquired Illustra and made their database engine an object-SQL DBMS by introducing their Universal Server, both Oracle and IBM followed suit by changing their database engines to be capable of object-relational extensions. Moreover, in 2001, IBM bought Informix and in the following years incorporated Informix technology into the DB2 product suite. Today, DB2 can technically be considered to be an object-SQL DBMS.

For some years DB2, as a full-function DBMS, was exclusively available on IBM mainframes. Later IBM brought DB2 to other platforms, including OS/2, UNIX and Windows servers, then Linux (including Linux on zSeries) and PDAs. This process was mainly undertaken through the 1990s. The inspiration for the mainframe version of DB2's architecture came in part from IBM DL/1 and IBM IMS, both initially hierarchical and then later network (or CODASYL) databases. DB2 is also embedded in the i5/OS operating system for IBM System i (iSeries, formerly the AS/400), and versions are available for z/VSE and z/VM.

An earlier version of the code that would become DB2 LUW (Linux, Unix, Windows) was part of an Extended Edition component of OS/2 called Database Manager. IBM extended the functionality of Database Manager a number of times, including the addition of distributed database functionality that allowed shared access to a database in a remote location on a LAN. Eventually IBM declared that insurmountable complexity existed in the Database Manager code, and took the difficult decision to completely rewrite the software in their Toronto Lab. The new version of Database Manager, called DB2 like its mainframe parent, ran on the OS/2 and RS/6000 platforms, was called DB2/2 and DB2/6000 respectively. Other versions of DB2, with different code bases, followed the same '/' naming convention and became DB2/400 (for the AS/400), DB2/VSE (for the DOS/VSE environment) and DB2/VM (for the VM operating system). IBM lawyers stopped this handy naming convention from being used and decided that all products needed to be called "product FOR platform" (for example, DB2 for OS/390). The next iteration of the mainframe and the server-based products were named DB2 Universal Database (or DB2 UDB), with the introduction of widespread confusion over which version (mainframe or server) of the DBMS was being referred to. At this point, the mainframe version of DB2 and the server version of DB2 were coded in entirely different languages (PL/S for the mainframe and C++ for the server), but shared very similar functionality and used a common architecture for SQL optimization: the Starburst Optimizer.

Over the years DB2 has both exploited and driven numerous hardware enhancements, particularly on IBM System z with such features as Parallel Sysplex data sharing. In fact, DB2 UDB Version 8 for z/OS now requires a 64-bit system and cannot run on earlier processors, and DB2 for z/OS maintains certain unique software differences in order to serve its sophisticated customers. Although the ultimate expression of software-hardware co-evolution is the IBM mainframe, to some extent that phenomenon occurs on other platforms as well, as IBM's software engineers collaborate with their hardware counterparts.

In the mid-1990s, IBM released a clustered DB2 implementation called DB2 Parallel Edition, which initially ran on AIX. This edition allowed scalability by providing a shared nothing architecture, in which a single large database is partitioned across multiple DB2 servers that communicate over a high-speed interconnect. This DB2 edition was eventually ported to all Linux, UNIX, and Windows (LUW) platforms and was renamed to DB2 Extended Enterprise Edition (EEE). IBM now refers to this product as the Database Partitioning Feature (DPF) and sells it as an add-on to their flagship DB2 Enterprise product.

In mid 2006, IBM announced "Viper," which is the codename for DB2 9 on both distributed platforms and z/OS. DB2 9 for z/OS was announced in early 2007. IBM claims that the new DB2 will be the first relational database to store XML "natively". Other enhancements include OLTP-related improvements for distributed platforms, business intelligence/data warehousing-related improvements for z/OS, more self-tuning and self-managing features, additional 64-bit exploitation (especially for virtual storage on z/OS), stored procedure performance enhancements for z/OS, and continued convergence of the SQL vocabularies between z/OS and distributed platforms.

DB2 9 on distributed platforms began shipping worldwide on July 28, 2006, with pricing starting at $4,874 per processor or $165 per user (minimum of 5 users) for DB2 9 Express, including one year of support.[1] DB2 for z/OS pricing starts at about $4,450 per month, including support.

Saturday, July 19, 2008

CSC As I see It 007

Correlate and differentiate the ff:
  • folder
  • file
  • record
  • datafield


A folder/database-
contains records, and in which each record is specified in a single line.

Stores information such as text and images.

A tuple is analogous to a record in non relational databases. The term originated as an abstraction of the sequence: single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, ... n-tuple. Tuple is used in abstract mathematics to denote a multidimensional coordinate system.

A data field is a place where you can store data. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form.
A data field is a place where you can store data. Commonly used to refer to a column in a database or a field in a data entry form or web form. The field may contain data to be entered as well as data to be displayed.

-Information in the database is generally stored in several different files. Each file consists of series of records. Each records consists of several fields, with each field containing an individual data item.

-fields, records, files and objects optimized to deal with very large amounts of data stored on a permanent structure.

Thursday, July 10, 2008

CSC As I See it 006

Differentiate all basic data models and alternative data models:

1).Hierarchical Models-data is organized into a tree-like structure. The structure allows repeating information using parent/child relationships: each parent can have many children but each child only has one parent. All attributes of a specific record are listed under an entity type. In a database, an entity type is the equivalent of a table; each individual record is represented as a row and an attribute as a column. Entity types are related to each other using 1: N mapping, also known as one to many relationships. The most recognized example of hierarchical model database is an IMS designed by IBM.
2.)Network Model-is a data modelsconceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its original inventor was charles,Becham and it was developed into a standard specification published in 1969 by the CODASYL Consortium. Where the hiererchical model structures data as a tree of records, with each record having one parent record and many children, the network model allows each record to have multiple parent and child records, forming a lattice structure.

The chief argument in favour of the network model, in comparison to the hierarchic model, was that it allowed a more natural modeling of relationships between entities. Although the model was widely implemented and used, it failed to become dominant for two main reasons. Firstly, IBM chose to stick to the hierarchical model with semi-network extensions in their established products such asnd DL/I. Secondly, it was eventually displaced by relational model the which offered a higher-level, more declarative interface. Until the early 1980s the performance benefits of the low-level navigational interfaces offered by hierarchical and network databases were persuasive for many large-scale applications, but as hardware became faster, the extra productivity and flexibility of the relational model led to the gradual obsolescence of the network model in corporate enterprise usage.

3.)Relational Models-is the easiest models to use and understand. Instead of creating files,records,owners,members,parents,or children, you create a table containing rows and columns.You design each table to eliminate redundancy and link them toghether using foreign keys.

4.)Entity-relationship model-is an abstract conceptual representation of structured data. Entity-relationship modeling is a relational schema database modeling method, used in software engineering to produce a type of conceptual data model (or semantic data model) of a system, often a relational database, and its requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created using this process are called entity-relationship diagrams, or ER diagrams or ERDs for short. Originally proposed in 1976 by Dr. Pin-Shan (Peter) Chen (陳品山), many variants of the process have subsequently been devised.

5.)Object-relational Model-similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. In addition, it supports extension of the data model with custom data-types and methods.

One aim for this type of system is to bridge the gap between conceptual data modeling techniques such as Entity-relationship diagram (ERD) and object-relational mapping (ORM), which often use classes and inheritance, and relational databases, which do not directly support them.

Sunday, July 6, 2008

CSC As I See it 005

10 DBMS Software with their Developer:

1) Easy Base (Company: Easy Software Ltd)

2) CompareData (Company: Zidsoft )

3) Visual SQL-Designer (Company: VisualSoft )

4) SQL Diagrams (Company: Skilled Software )

6) Job-Costing (Company: Easy Software Ltd )

7) Alventis (Company: Alventis Corporation )

8) Database Web Explorer (Company: Anatoly A. Sadovsky )

9) WebCab Delphi (Company: WebCab Components )

10) WebCab .NET (Company: WebCab Components )

SQL Diagrams- is a database computer languagedesigned for the retrieval and management of data in management systems (RDBMS), database schema creation and modification, and database object access control management.It is a standard interactive and programming language for querying and modifying data and managing databases. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language. The core of SQL is formed by a command language that allows the retrieval, insertion, updating, and deletion of data, and performing management and administrative functions. SQL also includes a Call Level Interface (SQL/CLI) for accessing and managing data and databases remotely.

DBMS has many objectives some of them are as follows.

  1. DBMS give multiuser access
  2. Give good security to database.
  3. Give full control to Data
  4. gives better hope of porting the code toother DBMS products. (good compatibility).
  5. Platform independent.
  6. Support online documentation
  7. Keep and maintain proper backups.
  8. concurrency control.
  9. crash recovery
  10. Complex query support

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

CSC As I See It 004



Data is stored information in the computer created by a user.It is stored as files in the computer.
Database is a structured collection of datas or records.The relation between data and database is that when you store a data in the computer it will be called as database,because it is already structured as files.


Management in simple terms is the act of getting together to accomplish desired goals.
System is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole.
The relation between management and system is when there is no management there is no system.In computers there is relationship between hardware and software,manages all devices,so thats what we called system.No management no system.

CSC As I see It 003

Discuss and Interrelate the ff:

Data refers to a collection of natural phenomena descriptors including the results of experience, observation or experiment, or a set of premises.
This may consist of numbers, words, or images, particularly as measurements or observations of a set of variables.A data is created by the user that is stored in the computer as files.

Data structure is a way of storing data in the computer.So this how data and data structure interrelates.Storing data is a called data structure.

DBMS is computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases based of data models.
It interrelates data structure and data because the data you've stored will be manage by the DBMS.This is how they interrelates.

Datafile is also a database,which is a structure collection of records on data, it is an attribute of a datum which tells the computer and the programmer something about the kind of datum it is. This involves setting constraints on the datum, such as what values it can take and what operations may be performed upon it. Common data types may include: integers, floating-point numbers, and alphanumeric strings.It interrelates data and data structure because database is a structure of data.DBMS manages databases that is structured as files.
INPUT- We need to input data in order us to have the output.We need to input data to gather some information,and also for processing,so we can have the knowledge.
PROCCES-Data process to organize it itself,in order to have an output in a proper way.It will be process to have as an information and knowledge.
OUTPUT-The output is for us the users,this called the print out materials to use as reference.